NEAR Shoemaker Satellite
Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous
– Shoemaker (NEAR Shoemaker), renamed after its 1996 launch in honor of planetary scientist Eugene Shoemaker, was a robotic space probe designed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory for NASA
to study the near-Earth asteroid Eros from close orbit over a period of a year. It was the first spacecraft to successfully orbit an asteroid and also land on an asteroid. On February 12, 2001, the mission succeeded in touching down on the asteroid and was then terminated just over two weeks later.
The primary scientific objective of NEAR was to return data on the bulk properties, composition, mineralogy, morphology, internal mass distribution and magnetic field of Eros. Secondary objectives include studies of regolith properties, interactions with the solar wind, possible current activity as indicated by dust or gas, and the asteroid spin state.